Coffee cultivation

The coffee tree is a tropical evergreen shrub (genus Coffea) and grows between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The two most commercially important species grown are varieties of Coffea arabica (Arabicas) and Coffea canephora (Robustas).

The coffee supply chain typically involves:

Figure 1: Coffee cherry with coffee beans

-        farming
-        processing in origin; this involves removal of the green beans from         the coffee cherry – see Figure 1                              
-        local purchasing
-        grading and quality control in origin
-        exporting
-        green coffee trading (by one or more traders)
-        Manufacturing

Several of these functions may be combined. For instance a farmer may do his own processing and a larger farmer cooperative may do its own grading and exporting. In the case of direct purchasing by the manufacturer, the green coffee trading function is bypassed.